A latch has two inputs : data(D), clock(clk) and one output: data(Q). When the clock is high, D flows through to Q and is transparent, but when the clock is low the latch holds its output Q even if D changes.

A flip-flop on the other hand captures data at its input at the positive or negative edge of a clock and output does not reflect changes in the input until the next clock edge.


In this example, we'll build a latch that has three inputs and one output. The input d stands for data which can be either 0 or 1, rstn stands for active-low reset and en stands for enable which is used to make the input data latch to the output. Reset being active-low simply means that the design element will be reset when this input goes to 0 or in other words, reset is active when its value is low. The value of output q is dictated by the inputs d, en and rstn.

module d_latch (  input d,           // 1-bit input pin for data
                  input en,          // 1-bit input pin for enabling the latch
                  input rstn,        // 1-bit input pin for active-low reset
                  output reg q);     // 1-bit output pin for data output
   // This always block is "always" triggered whenever en/rstn/d changes
   // If reset is asserted then output will be zero
   // Else as long as enable is high, output q follows input d
   always @ (en or rstn or d)
      if (!rstn)
         q <= 0;
         if (en)
            q <= d;

Note that the sensitivity list to the always block contains all the signals required to update the output. This block will be triggered whenever any of the signals in the sensitivity list changes its value. Also q will get the value of d only when en is high, and hence is a positive latch.



module tb_latch;
   // Declare variables that can be used to drive values to the design
   reg d;  
   reg en;
   reg rstn;
   reg [2:0] delay;
   reg [1:0] delay2;
   integer i;
   // Instantiate design and connect design ports with TB signals
   d_latch  dl0 ( .d (d),
                  .en (en),
                  .rstn (rstn),
                  .q (q));

   // This initial block forms the stimulus to test the design
   initial begin
      $monitor ("[%0t] en=%0b d=%0b q=%0b", $time, en, d, q);
      // 1. Initialize testbench variables
      d <= 0;
      en <= 0;
      rstn <= 0;
      // 2. Release reset
      #10 rstn <= 1;
      // 3. Randomly change d and enable
      for (i = 0; i < 5; i=i+1) begin
         delay = $random;
         delay2 = $random;
         #(delay2) en <= ~en;
         #(delay) d <= i;

To make our testbench assert and deassert signals in a more random manner, we have declared a reg variable called delay of size 3 bits so that it can take any value from 0 to 7. Then the delay variable is used to delay the assignment of d and en to get different patterns in every loop.


 Simulation Log
ncsim> run
[0] en=0 d=0 q=0
[11] en=1 d=0 q=0
[18] en=0 d=0 q=0
[19] en=0 d=1 q=0
[20] en=1 d=1 q=1
[25] en=1 d=0 q=0
[27] en=0 d=0 q=0
[32] en=0 d=1 q=0
[33] en=1 d=1 q=1
[34] en=1 d=0 q=0
ncsim: *W,RNQUIE: Simulation is complete.

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d latch